Welcome to Fasal – The Art of Farming and Cultivation!!
The term FASAL is a Hindi word which means CROP. The website www.MyFasal.com is created with the intent to provide an insight to readers, farmers, beginners in farming and anyone else who is interested to know about farming and agriculture. We have put together as much information as possible in one place in a simple and readable manner and in layman terms to help people learn the art of farming and bring back the age-old tradition of agriculture.
This website is aimed at providing information to the best of our knowledge by gathering facts and collecting information about farming and agriculture in India and how to reap benefits from it. The information presented here is after researching and producing content that is relevant specifically to farming in India, the practices followed here, the trends and a beginner’s guide to home-grown produce.
So if you have agriculture or farming on your mind and do not know how to go about it, read on. This is the right place for all information on farming in India, or as we call it – fasal.
Introduction – Farming and Agriculture.
Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy and a majority of Indians earn their livelihood from agriculture even today. Farming was the norm in India right from the Indus Valley Civilization era. It declined over the years due to various reasons but the current trend is shifting again towards farming, agriculture, home-grown produce and the like. India is emerging now as a nation leaning towards a healthy lifestyle. This can be attributed to the fact that diseases are rampant and obesity is a common household term.
There is a paradigm shift toward yogic sciences, farming, cleaner air and living conditions, healthy eating habits including organic foods and produce. Another important factor is that the world pollution levels have reached an all-time high and global climate changes are forcing people to start thinking and caring for the environment.
Due to the rapid rise in population in our country over the years, trees were felled on large scales leading to increase in temperature. Increase in population also leads to more vehicles on the road, leading to a steep increase in air pollution. With the weather changing rapidly as it has, crops and agriculture suffer as farmers predominantly depend on rains to grow crops. Thus farmers suffer and so does the economy.
But awareness is leading people to change their perspective towards a greener environment again. People are more conscious now than ever before in planting seeds, composting, recycling, reducing and reusing. The damage is already done to a great extent but none the less, it is never too late to change and try our best to create a greener environment for the future generation.
With this in mind, it is our endeavor through this website to create awareness in our age-old trends such as agriculture and farming and encourage the future generations to think green and live healthy. We can take small steps towards a better environment by following some simple lifestyle changes towards a greater cause.
What is Agriculture and farming and what is the difference?
Agriculture is defined as – “The science or practice of farming, including cultivation of soil for growing crops and the rearing of animals to provide food, wool, and other products”. Agriculture was something that was only done by farmers predominantly but times are changing and more people are showing great interest in agriculture.
Farming is defined as – “the business of growing crops and raising livestock”, which seems more or less like agriculture. But what is the difference between the two terms? To explain in layman terms, agriculture is a broader term in that it is the process of research, development and production of crops whereas farming is the implementation of agriculture. Farming is a part of agriculture to be specific.
There are two major agricultural seasons in India, namely the Kharif and the Rabi. The Kharif season lasts from April to September with rice as the season’s main crop and the Rabi season lasts from October to March with wheat as the main crop grown. There is another season between the Kharif and the Rabi season called the Zaid, which is between March and June.
India’s ranking globally –
India ranks second worldwide in farm output. Here is a list of top ten countries across the world by GDP contribution –
3. United States
Looking at the figures above we wonder how China has beaten us in agriculture. There are many reasons for this such as technology, investment and a liberal agricultural policy. Whatever the reason, there is little or no time to mull over what could have been us at the top there on that list. This is the time to act, to farm, to harvest and reap the results. If we need food to eat and to feed the millions of people around, we need to find means and ways to improve the agriculture and farming standards in the country for the future years to come.
Market trends and the importance of agriculture –
• The Ministry of Agriculture declared that the total food grain production in India earlier this year was around 273.38 million tons.
• India imported 2.7 million tons of wheat in FY17
• In March 2017, of 64.5 million hectares of agriculture land, the government insured 19 million hectares during the Rabi season, under the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) program.
• The Indian food industry is poised for huge growth, increasing its contribution to world food trade every year. The Indian food and grocery market is the world’s sixth largest, with retail contributing 70% of the sales. The Indian food processing industry accounts for 32 percent of the country’s total food market
• According to the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP), the Indian agricultural services and agricultural machinery sectors have cumulatively attracted Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) equity inflow of about US$ 2.45 billion and the food processing sector has attracted around US$ 7.81 billion during April 2000 to June 2017.
Government Initiatives to encourage agriculture and its growth –
• Given the importance of the agricultural sector, the Government of India, in its Budget 2017–18, planned several steps for the sustainable development of agriculture
• With an aim to boost innovation and entrepreneurship in agriculture, the Government of India is introducing AGRI-UDAAN to encourage start-ups and connect them with investors
• The Government of India launched the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY) with an investment of Rs 50,000 crore for the development of irrigation sources for providing a permanent solution from drought.
• The Government has vowed to triple the capacity of food processing sector in India and has invested Rs 6,000 crore for mega food parks in the country
• The Union Cabinet has approved Rs 9,020 crore for the successful execution of projects under Accelerated Irrigation Benefits Program (AIBP)
• A new platform for selling agricultural produce named e-RaKam has been launched by the Government of India
• The NITI Aayog has proposed liberal contract farming, direct purchase from farmers by private players, direct sale by farmers to consumers, and single trader license, among other measures, in order to double rural income in the next five years.
• The Ministry of Agriculture has been devising strategies to double the income of farmers by 2022.
• The Government of India has allowed 100 per cent FDI in the marketing of food products and in food product e-commerce under the automatic route.
• The Maharashtra State Agriculture Marketing Board (MSAMB) has started farmer-to-consumer markets in the state and plans to open 100 more such markets in the future.
There are many more such initiatives being invented for the sole purpose of improving the current agriculture situation in India.
Since we have spoken so many crops and agriculture, let us learn what sort of crops are grown in India –
• Crops grown in the Kharif season – rice, jowar, bajra, maize, sorghum, ragi, pulses, soyabean, groundnut, cotton, jute, sugarcane, turmeric, etc
• Crops grown in the Rabi season – wheat, oat, gram, pea, barley, potato, tomato, onion, oil-seeds, linseed, mustard, etc
• Crops grown in the Zaid season – cucumber, bitter gourd, pumpkin, watermelon, muskmelon, moong dal, etc
Categories of crops grown in India –
The categories of crops grown in India are – Food crops, cash crops, plantation crops and horticulture crops. Food crops wheat, maize, rice, millets, pulses, etc. Cash crops are sugarcane, tobacco, cotton, jute, oilseeds, etc. Plantation crops are coffee, tea, coconut, rubber, etc. Horticulture crops are mainly fruits and vegetables. We will delve into these topics in greater detail.
India’s temperature various across the country drastically and thereby each area or region has its own sort of crops that are grown according to the weather conditions.
Let us learn about some major crops and the states that they are grown in –
The list provided here is only a brief list of some of the major crops grown in India. This is not the entire list. The list was provided just to get an idea of the where some of the crops can be grown and which states produce them.
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