Introduction: – Popularly known as “Urad” is scientifically called as Vigna Mungo L. Being one of the most important pulse crops, urad crop is resistant to adverse climatic conditions and by fixing atmospheric nitrogen in the soil improves the soil fertility. Urad is popularly known and grown in India for its protein-rich content in seeds and used as daal as the main ingredient in breakfast snacks like dosa, idli, vada and papad.
Urad dal, known in Different Languages: –
Urad Dal (Hindi)
Ulundu Paruppu (Tamil)
Uzhunnu Parippu (Malayalam)
Uddina Bele (Kannada)
Masakalai Dala (Bengali)
Biri Dali (Oriya)
Kaali Dal (Marathi)
Adad Dal (Gujarati)
Some of the commercial varieties of Black Gram includes that of LBG-20, T-9, Uttara, LBG-623, KU-91-2, Vamban-2, Azad Urid-2, KU-3-1, WBG-26, WBU-108, TU-94-2, ADT-5, Azad-1, Azad-3, M-391, DU-1, IPU-2-43, Mash-114, Mash-479, WBU-109, PU-31, PU-40, Sekhar-1, Sekhar-2, Sekhar-3, LBG-7658 and LBG-752.
Climate Requirement in Black Gram Cultivation:
Black Gram crop requires and favors dry weather condition having an ideal temperature range between 25 ͦC to 35 ͦC. In order to have high yield and good quality seeds the matured crop period should coincide with the dry weather condition.
Soil Requirement in Black Gram Farming:
The soil having neutral pH is recommended for Black Gram cultivation. The most favorable soil for this crop is loam or clay loam soil. In order to have better yield and seed germination, the soil with higher organic matter are recommended.
Land Preparation in Black Gram Cultivation:
In previous years that field shouldn’t be sown with Black Gram which field is selected for seed germination so as to avoid plants that cause admixture. The field may harbor root rot or wilt pathogen if it is continuously cultivated with Black Gram.
Seed Requirement in Black Gram Cultivation:
The seeds should and must be from an authorized source which is to be sown. Generally, the seeds must be pure and belong to high quality. In order to have a good yield the Black Gram seeds used for sowing must be vigorous. To avoid diseased seeds, hard seeds, shrunken, deformed and immature seeds, the seeds should be thoroughly checked and verified.
The rate of Seeds and Treatment Done in Black Gram Cultivation:
The variety of seeds we use upon that only the rate of seed depends. The estimated rate is approximately 8 to 10 kg per acre.
Seed treating fungicide is used for the treatment of Black Gram seeds in order to reduce infection by fungal pathogens from the soil. Moreover, Bavistin is used @ 2 grams per kg of seeds for the treatment of the Black Gram seeds. For the pulses @ 4 grams per kg, Trichoderma viridi is used as an Organic Fungicide.
Sowing and Spacing Done in Black Gram Cultivation:
Keeping depth @ 2 cm and spacing of 10 cm & 30 cm between the rows in the main field the Black Gram seeds are sown.
The Black Gram crop being sensitive to irrigation, the field should be watched and monitored constantly so as to prevent any drought conditions. Pulse crop starts to shed flowers if the crop is not irrigated properly. If plants are provided with no water or less water, then it produces seeds that are small and hard with low vigor. In order to avoid this problem, the plant should be provided with sufficient water.
Immediately after sowing followed by lite irrigation on the 3rd day the field should be irrigated. After this, based on the requirement irrigation is carried out. In order to have better yield, the water supply should be adequate during the flowering of the crop, pod formation and seed development.
Fertilizers Used in Black Gram Cultivation:
Application of Basal fertilizers is not sufficient enough for the seed crop. At the time of growth of crop and formation of seeds extra nutrients are needed which is done through foliar feeding.
The solution of Urea @ 4.0, D.A.P @ 1.0, Muriate of Potash @ 0.6, Potassium Sulphate @ 0.02, Succinic acid @ 0.02 and Teepol @ 0.04 ml are all soaked in 100 liters of water and then sprayed after 25 to 35 days of sowing of seeds which is again followed by another spray in 40 to 50 days.
Weed Control in Black Gram Farming:
Basalin weedicide spray prepared by dissolving 2ml of Basalin/liter water should be applied immediately soon after the sowing and watering. It should be sprayed within 3 days of sowing otherwise it may cause damaging of the crop if done later. The advantage of applying weedicide is it will control the early growth weeds. In order to control the later emerging weeds in the crop manual weeding should be practiced after 2 weeks.
Pests and Diseases in Black Gram Cultivation:
The common pest found in Black Gram crop is stem fly which affects the crop at an early stage thereby causing drying and withering plants. Other pests such as leaf-hopper, aphid, and white-fly affect the plant majorly during the growth phase thereby affecting the field crop. In order to control these pests, a spray of either dimethoate, phosphamidon or mehyldematan @ 2ml/ liter should be applied.
Some of the common diseases found in Black Gram crops are yellow mosaic, white-fly, root rot and wilt that majorly affects the plant. The Black Gram crop is rarely affected by powdery mildew and Cercospora.
The pods that are ripened are picked from the plants and dried on the floor. At the time of harvesting, the plant should be cut and spread over the floor to dry. After getting dry, the plants turn into black and pods start to split. After that, the plant is beaten with a pliable stick in order to prevent damage to the seeds. After that, the seeds are separated from the pods. After harvesting is done, these plants can be used as fodder for animals.
The yield depends upon the variety of seeds and the field management done during cultivation. The expected yield varies from 800 kg to 1100 kg per acre.