Introduction: -Famous by the name “Moong Dal”, Green gram is a tiny circular shaped bean. The color of its being green so commonly known as a green bean. It is known to be the main pulse crop grown in India. It is widely farmed and cultivated throughout Asia.
Unlike Lentil, Green gram is also a part of the protein-rich diet. Green gram is utilized as the whole pulse and also as a split pulse in India. For the aged and ill people it proves to be boon as it is easily digestible. In India, it is mostly used and prepared as dal and khichdi.
Health benefits: -Following are the benefits of Moong dal:
- Rich source of Protein
- Helps in losing weight
- Controls Blood Pressure
- Contains Fiber and Iron
Green gram, known in different Languages: –
Mung/Moong dal (Hindi)
Moog dal (Marathi)
Mung/Mmug dal (Bengali)
Some of the hybrid varieties found in India consists of RUM-1, HUM-12, BM-4, PDM-54, JM-72, K-851 & PDM-11.
Climate Requirements for Green gram Cultivation: –
Warm humid climatic conditions where temperature ranging from 25 ͦC to 35 ͦC having moderate rainfall of about 85 to 100 cm is most favorable of Green gram cultivation. The water should be well distributed throughout its growing period of 100 days.
Plantation in Green gram Farming: –
March to June period is well suited for Green gram as this period has high temperature and low humidity thereby keeping away from insects and diseases. Warm and wet Kharif season is usually preferred for Green gram cultivation in North India and mild winter season in South India.
Soil Essentials in Green gram Cultivation: –
A wide range of soils is favorable for Green gram Cultivation. In North India, black cotton soils are preferred whereas laterite soil in South India and sandy soil in Rajasthan are the best options. Well-drained loamy to sandy loam soil is most recommended in order to have good germination thus giving a good yield. Waterlogging soil and saline soil should be avoided as they don’t enhance Green gram cultivation.
Field Preparation in Green gram Farming: –
To avoid volunteer plants that cause admixture, it should be noted that the selected farmland is not sown with Green gram earlier. The farm area should be prepared by plowing to form fine tilth and channels and beds should be formed.
Proper nutrients should be added to the soil as a supplement. Lime @ 2 tons/ha along with Farm Yard Manure (FYM) @ 12.5 tons/ha or compost coir pith @ 13 tons/ha are added to the soil so as to have incremented yield of about 15% to 20%.
The rate of Seed in Green gram: –
The seed rate depends on the variety of seed that is used. In case of a Green gram, it varies from 8 to 10 kg/acre.
For better yield, the seeds to be used should be from genuine, authorized source so that you get a proper seed that has genetic purity. It should also be noted that the seeds must be vigorous to have good field stand. Also during seed selection, one should check for diseased seed, hard seeds, shrunken seeds, immature seeds and deformed seeds.
Seed Treatment, done in Green gram Cultivation: –
The seeds should be treated with Thiram or Carbendazim at the rate of 2 grams/ kg or Pseudomonas fluorescence @ 10 grams/kg or with talc formulation of Trichoderma Viride @ 4 grams/kg just 1 day before sowing of the seeds. First, the Green gram seeds should be treated with Biocontrol agents and then with Rhizobium.
Manures and Fertilizers used in Green gram Cultivation: –
Decomposed compost like cow dung @ 5 tons along with a basal solution of superphosphate @ 120 kg and urea @ 20 kg/acre should be applied and spread to the farm area.
In case of irrigated condition PTO @ 50 kg, N @ 25 kg, P2O5 @ 50 kg and S @ 20 kg/ha are sprayed whereas for rainfed condition P2O5 @ 25 kg, 12.5 kg of N and 10 kg of S/ha are applied.
Sowing of Seeds: –
The Green gram seeds should be dibbled taking space of 30 cm X 10 cm. If the crop is bund, the seeds should be dibbled keeping 30 cm spacing.
3rd day after sowing irrigation starts. 6 to 9 days of intervals should be kept while doing irrigation thereby depending upon the climatic conditions and soil type. While flowering and pod formation, irrigation becomes necessary. It should be made sure that the soil has proper drainage and water logging should be avoided at all stages of plant growth. As a Foliar spray KCl @ 0.5% should be applied during the vegetative stage of the crop if any moisture stress is there.
Weed Control in Green gram Cultivation: –
In order to control weeds, Basalin @ 2ml/ liter of water is applied soon after the sowing of seeds and irrigation is done. Weedicide must be sprayed within 3 days of sowing of seeds as it can damage the crop if done later. Manual weeding is recommended after 1 month of sowing so as to manage and control later emerging weeds in the crop.
Insecticides and Pesticides in Green gram cultivation: –
The most popular pest found in Green gram is Stem fly that affects the plant in the early stages thereby leading to drying and withering. The common pest found during the growing stage of Green gram plant are leaf-hopper, aphids and whitefly that affect the Green gram crop. By spraying either with the solution of Dimethoate or Phosphomidan or Mehyldematan @ 2ml/ liter of water, these pests can be controlled.
The yellow mosaic disease might be observed during the growing stage of a Green gram which causes severe damage to the plants when appeared. Apart from this, leaf curl disease and leaf crinkle can also be found thereby damaging the crop. The plants should be removed as quickly as they appear. Green gram crops may also get affected by the diseases like wilt, root rot which can be controlled by spraying the solution of Bavistin @ 0.1%. Applying a spray of Bavistin solution @ 1% Powdery mildew and Cercospora can be controlled easily.
When almost 85% of the pods are fully matured, Green grams are said to be ready for harvesting. In bad weather, harvesting should be avoided. The harvested stack should be kept for drying in the field after cutting on the threshing floor. If there are any admixtures, then it should be removed before the harvesting starts.
Yield depends upon the quality of seeds used and management of the farm. An expected yield of the Green gram is calculated to be an average of 10 to 14 quintals/ha.