GREEN PEAS CULTIVATION
Green peas/garden peas / Pisum sativum belong to the legume family and is widely cultivated over the world. India is the second largest producer of peas. The local names for peas are Matar, Batani, Putani, Pattani, Bara matar, Pacha Pattani, Matara, etc.
Peas are cultivated mainly for the pod and are used as food for humans and fodder for animals. The major states producing green peas are MP, Karnataka, Rajasthan, WB, Punjab, Assam, Haryana, UP, Uttarakhand, HP, Bihar, and Orissa. Peas are popular and easy to grow on a farm or your home garden. They taste good too and have a lot of health benefits.
Peas are grown as creepers or climbers. Some of the popular varieties of peas are Early Perfection, Bejar, Arkel, Jawahar Matar-4, Bonneville, Little Marvel, Kashi Mukti, Kashi Udai, P-8, Lincoln, Jawahar Matar-1, VL-3, Pant Uphar, etc. Peas are a cool season crop and although they are easy to grow, they have a limited growing season. They have a shorter shelf life too but can be stored longer if kept under refrigeration. Peas are available fresh in the market with the pods and as a frozen option. Either way, the best option is to keep under refrigeration for longevity. Fresh peas can be removed from the pod and stored in airtight containers.
As mentioned earlier, peas can be used as food for human consumption and plenty of tasty dishes can be made from peas. Some dishes that are popularly made in India are aloo matar, matar paneer, peas pulao, green peas soup, matar masala, methi matar malai, mushroom peas gravy, masala bhaat, matarsutir kochuri, green peas ambit, vegetable upma, oats upma, samosas, vegetable cutlet, pav bhaji, avial, vegetable stew, stuffed khandvi, bengalo khichdi, coconut pulao, vegetable biryani, hara bhara kabab, masala chaat, peas parathas, etc.
There are innumerable dishes that can be prepared from peas, both Indian and western. There are more than 500 available recipes that can be made using peas. Peas can be used in any vegetable such a cauliflower, carrots, etc. to make a mixed vegetable dish. They can be used in noodles, salads, pastas, wraps, and so on. Peas are good bodybuilding foods and essential in your daily diet. Peas can be simply boiled and eaten with corn as well as a tasty, healthy snack. Regular consumption of peas is highly recommended for good health. Due to its popularity and health benefits, peas are widely cultivated to meet the demands.
Green Peas Cultivation in India
Image source – whistlingtrainfarm.com
Nutritional value –
Nutrient Amount Nutrient
vitamin K 35.68 mcg 6.2
manganese 0.72 mg 5.6
fiber 7.58 g 4.7
vitamin B1 0.36 mg 4.7
copper 0.24 mg 4.1
vitamin C 19.56 mg 4.1
phosphorus 161.17 mg 3.6
folate 86.78 mcg 3.4
vitamin B6 0.30 mg 2.7
vitamin B3 2.78 mg 2.7
vitamin B2 0.21 mg 2.5
molybdenum 6.89 mcg 2.4
zinc 1.64 mg 2.3
protein 7.38 g 2.3
magnesium 53.72 mg 2.1
iron 2.12 mg 1.8
Image source – whfoods.com
Process of growing Green Peas
⦁ Time / Season / Climatic conditions –
Peas are cool season crops and grow best at temperatures of 10 – 30 °C. Green peas are sensitive to frost conditions and prefer agro-climatic conditions. They grow best in moist and cool regions with rainfalls of about 500 mm annually. Peas can be grown throughout the year, but for commercial purposes, you may grow them as below.
Sowing time for peas depends on the area of cultivation.
Rabi season crop – October – November in the plains and March-May in hills
⦁ Seed rate / Spacing –
The ideal seed rate is 20 – 30 kg/ha. Always use good quality seeds and treat seeds with Rhizium culture to give higher yields and quality. Peas are soaked in water overnight before sowing for better germination. Peas are sown by the broadcast or dibbling method.
A spacing of flatbed type layout consists of 45 cm x 25 cm. Peas are generally treated before sowing to avoid most diseases and make them pest resistant. You can treat the seeds with Thiram or Captan @ 20 gm/kg to avoid seed-borne diseases.
⦁ Soil type / land preparation / Irrigation –
Green peas can be grown in a wide variety of soils, but they prefer well-drained loamy soil that is rich in organic matter. The ideal pH range is 6.0 – 7.5. Test the soil before planting and ensure the soil has an adequate quantity of FYM (40 – 60 cartloads/ha). Inorganic fertilizers such as 45 kg P, 30 kg N, and 50 kg K per hectare should be added. Fertilizers must be split into doses such as half N, full P, K and remaining half of N can be used a month later.
Prepare the land with tractor or country plow to bring it to fine tilth stage as with most crops. Remove any previous weeds and clear the land.
Irrigation is given depending on the season. For example, in the rainy season, low intervals of irrigation are required out at 8 – 10 days interval and summer season will require frequent irrigation. Irrigation at flowering and pod stage is very important. Waterlogging should be avoided and the excess water should be drained out. Crops, grown on light and sandy soils require frequent irrigation. For any further issues on land preparation or irrigation, please contact your local horticulturist. Once the peas start growing (2 months later), they need support in the form of bamboo sticks for the vines to grow upward.
⦁ Weed Management / Pest Control –
Weeding can be done mechanically or by chemical means. Chemical methods are found to be a lot easier to control weeds. Mechanical methods are harder as the spacing is less between rows. Before sowing, ensure you treat the weeds to avoid diseases.
Leaf weeds can be controlled by spraying herbicides such as simazine, propazine, and atrazine 0.5 kg/ha.
Prometryne can be used @ 400 – 450 gm/acre to get better crop yield
Aphids are controlled by spraying dimethoate @ 0.05%
Powdery mildew can be managed by spraying wettable sulfur 3 gm/liter of water. 3 sprays should be given at fortnightly intervals
Pod borers can be controlled by spraying NPV at the time of flower bud formation
For further issues on weed management, please contact your local horticulturist.
⦁ Harvesting –
The early variety of green peas can be harvested after 2 months from the sowing time. Harvesting time depends on the variety of peas sown. Another way to know when to harvest is by looking at the color of the peas and as soon they change color to light green they can be harvested. Mid-season crops can be harvested 2.5 months after sowing.3 – 4 picklings can be done with an interval of 2 – 12 days.
The yield of green peas depends on the variety of peas, soil type, climatic conditions, etc. Early varieties yield 30 – 40 quintals/ha and the later varieties yield about 45 – 60 quintals/ha.
They can be stored in airtight containers under refrigeration, once bought from the market and the frozen variety can be stored in the freezer section of the refrigerators for longer shelf life. They can be boiled and eaten. Fresh variety may contain green worms and if you buy that variety, each pod will carefully have to be checked for worms and removed manually.
⦁ Benefits of Green Peas –
⦁ Green peas help in weight loss and controlling blood sugar levels in the body
⦁ They are known to prevent wrinkles, anti-aging, Alzheimer’s, arthritis, bronchitis, and osteoporosis
⦁ Regular consumption of green peas leads to a better immune system and they are known for bodybuilding
⦁ They are a good source of energy and should be consumed daily if possible
⦁ They help in the prevention of stomach cancer and improve digestion
⦁ They are good for the heart and reduce cholesterol levels especially LDL
⦁ Green peas are known to prevent constipation
⦁ They contain antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties
⦁ Green peas provide nitrogen fixation and are good for the environment too
⦁ They induce healthy bones
⦁ Peas contain folate and are good for expectant mothers
⦁ They also contain vitamin A and are therefore good for the eyes as well
⦁ They contain vitamin C that is good for the immune system, keeps colds at bay and is good for the skin too
⦁ Peas contain vitamin B6 and are known to reduce hair fall symptoms and strengthen hair growth