Papaya is a tropical fruit which is high in antioxidant which helps in better digestion. This fruit is beneficial as it helps in weight loss and provides relief from a severe toothache as it is a good source of fiber and magnesium. This fruit helps to improve the skin care as well as cure the heart disease. Papaya helps to improve the immunity system as the nutrients present in this fruit helps to improve the cardiovascular health and protects the colon cancer.
2. Climate and soil
Papaya can grow in all types of soil, but the most vital one is the deep, rich as well as alluvial soil. The rich alluvial soil is used for plantation of papaya at about 15 cm deep with ph scale ranges from 6.5 to 7.0. The climate which is appropriate for the growth of papaya is that it requires being grown in tropical areas with rainfall 35 cm to 250cm.
3. Land preparation
The well-drained land is appropriate for the growth of papaya in the tropical region. The plantation in case of papaya tree is done by providing a suitable break of the wind which is applicable in the open as well as high lying areas.
The variety of papaya which is available throughout the year is Coorg Honey Dew, Pusa dwarf, Pusa Giant as well as Pusa Majesty. The Pusa Delicious is also available in the market throughout the year which is about 1 to 2 kg in weight which possesses excellent flavor.
Papaya can be sown any time during the month of March till the end of September. Due to severe winter in North India during December and January, the seeds are generally sown during July to September when the seedling is of 20 to generally 30 cm in height and can easily be protected from frost and freeze in winter.
Figure: Papaya plant sowed in a distance
6. Application of Manures and Fertilizers
Papaya is rich in nutrient, and this plant needs a high amount of manures and fertilizers. Apart from the basal dose of 10 kg manures applicable in each plant. The fertilizers required are 200-250 gm of Nitrogen, phosphorus oxide and potassium oxides are essential for enhancing the high yield of the fruit.
The process of intercropping, as well as weeding, should be done on a regular basis to improve the quality of the plant as well as to maintain the level of a nutrient in the yield. The application of Fluchloralin, Alachlorin, and Butachlorine as herbicide after two months of transplanting can effectively control the weeds for a period of four months. The process of earthling is generally done before or after the onset of monsoon to avoid water logging.
Irrigation is to be done in case of papaya at the weekly interval during the summer season and once in 8 to 10 days during the winter season. The Ring and Drip irrigation are the preferred methods of irrigation which are used in case of papaya.
Figure: Papaya cultivation in India
9. Plant protection Measures
The plants are protected by using different types of pesticides from Fruit Flies, Ak grasshopper as well as Aphids. The pesticides used in case of Papaya are Chlorothalonil, Oryzalin and Metalaxyl and copper. The plant should be well protected to retain the correct amount of nutrient in the fruits.
Fruits are harvested when they are of a full size, light green in color with a tinge of yellow at the apical end. On ripening, fruits of certain varieties turn yellow while some of them remain green. The harvesting is generally done throughout the year.