The pineapple is a delicious tropical fruit which helps in the process of minimization of arthritis as it contains an enzyme known as bromelain which helps in the reduction of swellings of joints and muscles. This fruit is also beneficial as it helps to enhance the level of energy, prevent throat, breast as well as mouth cancer. The advantage of having pineapples on a daily basis as it helps to minimize cold and cough and protect from high blood pressure.
2. Climate and soil
Pineapple grows in warm and humid climate as they are grown in a land with low elevation with the difference in temperature ranging from 15 degree Celsius to 30 degree Celsius. The high temperature of 35 degrees Celsius is harmful to the growth of pineapple as they are grown in a moderate climate. The sandy soils, as well as loamy soil which are rich in humus, are appropriate for the proper growth of pineapple as the pH of the soil ranges from 5 to 6. The laterite soils are also used for the proper growth of pineapple as it helps in intercropping system.
3. Land preparation
The methods of clearing of land are used in case of pineapple as it provides the advantages of maintaining the appropriate amount of nutrient which is present in the soil. This method is used as it helps in declining the number of weeds as well as ants nest. The controlling of weed in the process of preparation of land is vital as it protects the plant from the chemical control apart from maintaining the value of the nutrient. The trenches which are applied at a convenient length of land preparation are about 90 cm of width and depth which ranges in between 15 to 30 cm which is based on nature of the land.
Figure: Pineapple cultivation in India
The most vital variety of pineapple which is available in the market is Giant kew, Queen, Kew, Mauritius, Charlotte as well as Roth child. The Queen variety of pineapple is used for the preparation of different kinds of juices, squashes as well as for extraction of pulp which is used for the daily consumption. The kew pineapple is used for the usage of canning process as it contains the proper amount of nutrient which is used for preservation.
The Hawaiian pineapple is sown during the month of April, and it lasts until the end of May. On the other hand, the pineapples which are grown in Giant Kew sow the crops during two times in a year, one from December which lasts till the end of February and the other ranges from August till the date of September.
Figure: Pineapple sorting after harvest
6. Application of Manures and Fertilizer
The pineapple requires a high amount of manures as it helps in absorbing the nitrogen which is available in the form of ammonia. The application of cow dung is to be used for the process in manuring as it contains nitrogen and potassium oxide. The nitrogen which is used in the process of fertilizer is applied six times during the interval of two months as it helps in the maintenance of appropriate levels of potassium. In case of ratoon crop, 4g of di-phosphorus pentaoxide per plant will increase the yielding capacity of the plant. Mainly nitrogen is given two months after sowing and 12 months after sowing. Potassium is added during planting and six months after plantation of the crops. The ratoon crop requires 4 gm p205 plant which increases the weight of the pineapple, and it also helps in maintaining the highest yield.
The intercultural process of weeding is used in case of pineapple as it helps in elimination of weedicides which are generally applied three or four times during the sowing seasons. The weeds are controlled by using the different kinds of weeds during the sowing seasons. In addition, earthling is also needed in the intercultural process to improve anchoring capacity of the plants.
The irrigation of pineapple is done when the climatic condition is generally rainy which initiates during the month of September and lasts until the end of December as they are available during the rainy seasons. The areas which are receiving a high amount of rainfall generally produced good size fruits which are sweet in taste, and it helps in the prevention of different kinds of cancer.
9. Plant protection Measures
The pineapple is protected by using insect pest as the growth of this fruit is hindered when the insects are not handled appropriately. The good drainage, as well as the dipping of suckers in case of Bordeaux mixture, is used before the planting done in case of pineapple.
The fruit pineapple is generally harvested by using the methods of hand harvest by the pickers who are given the direction in case of the methods used in following stages of ripeness. Pineapple is harvested by following the methods of breaking or cutting the stalk which is required to maintain few centimeters below the fruit. The process of packaging of the harvested pineapple is done either in the field or at a central packing shed during the different times of the season.