Pomegranate is a fruit which is used in medicines as it contains a huge amount of antioxidant which helps to protect the damaged cells and helps to reduce inflammation. This fruit is beneficial as it contains the maximum amount of Vitamin C which helps to prevent the growth of cells in case of prostate cancer. The juice of this fruit helps to prevent the heart disease and controls the level of blood pressure. This fruit helps to minimize the level of diabetes as it contains a high amount of potassium.
2. Climate and soil
Pomegranate requires hot and dry climate which helps in improving the quality of the fruit. The dry and humid climate affects the development of the fruit, and it enhances the attraction of insects for effective pollination. The plants are affected when the temperature remains below 11 degree Celsius for a prolonged time period. Pomegranate requires deep, loamy and well-drained soil with pH scale of 7.5.
3. Land preparation
The lands are prepared by using the inputs relating to FYM, fertilizers, micronutrient materials used in case of Liming. The ripping and the leveling of land is also used in case of land preparation of pomegranate which leads to soil friability and removing weeds.
The varieties of pomegranate which are available in the market are Bhagwa, Arakta, Mridula, and Dholka. The Ganesh, as well as Ruby, are grown in abundance which is available throughout the year.
Pomegranate is generally sown twice in a year once in the month of June and July and again during the month of November as well as in December. The processes of sowing are to be done appropriately in order to enhance the level of productivity.
Figure: Pomegranate farming in India
6. Application of Manures and Fertilizers
Pomegranate requires 50 kg of FYM, 3.5 kg of oil cake relating to ammonia as well as 1 kg of sulphate of ammonia. The process of intercropping and green manure is beneficial for the growth of pomegranate. The fertilizers applied to the fruits generally are 600-700 gm Nitrogen, 200-250 gm phosphorus pentaoxide and 200-250 gm and potassium oxide.
The process of intercultural includes the methods of weeding as well as tilling of land as to maintain the floor of the garden in which the fruits are grown free from harmful pesticides. The herbicides used in pomegranate are glyphosate, as well as bipyridyl paraquat.
The drip irrigation is practiced in case of this fruit as it helps to save the average water requirement as well as it helps to enhance the level of productivity by 30 to 35 %. The irrigation is done by following the basin system during the hot, dry summer and cold winter. The process of basin irrigation helps to improve the quality of the soil to retain the amount of moisture content in it.
9. Plant protection Measures
The plants are protected by using different kinds of insect’s pesticides against fruit borer, mealy bugs as well as fruit sucking moths. The plants of pomegranate are also protected by using a different kind of spray such as dimethoate, deltamethrin as well as malathion. If the plant is not protected against the insecticides, the nutrient content in the fruit will be decreased resulting in the loss of the harvester.
Figure: Pomegranate harvesting in India
The harvesting is generally done by following One Acre Model as it helps to harvest the fruit in large quantities by maintaining the level of a nutrient in the fruits. The harvesting of this fruit is done from the beginning of September and continues until the end of September.