RED GRAM/PIGEON PEAS
Introduction: -Famous by the names Pigeon Peas/Toor dal/Arhar dal is scientifically known as Cajanus Cajan belongs to the widespread family of pulses. It is also known as Red gram in India and is most popular as split Pigeon Peas/Toor Dal. It is an important source of protein and used as an important vegetarian diet. The regions where it grows, a Red gram is also eaten as a vegetable bringing the fresh young pods. The split driedseeds are used to prepare dishes such as sambhar being used as a lentil.
Red gram, known in different Languages: –
Pigeon Peas/Red Gram/Yellow Lentils (English)
Arhar/Tuvar/Toor/ Tur Dal (Hindi)
Kandi Pappu (Telugu)
Health Benefits of Red gram: –
⦁ Regulates Blood Pressure
⦁ Helps in growth and development
⦁ Prevents Anemia
⦁ Helps in curing diseases such as Piles/Hemorrhoids due to its anti-inflammatory properties.
⦁ Helps in weight loss
⦁ Works as an energy booster
⦁ Strengthens Immunity system
⦁ Improves Digestion
Climate Requirement in Red Gram Farming: –
An average rainfall of 600 to 650 mm with moist conditions is required for the Red gram farming for the first 8 weeks and drier conditions are required during flowering and pod development stage thereby resulting in high yield. During flowering, if rain occurs then it leads to poor pollination. A season like summer, rainy and winter season, April-Summer, June-Kharif or rainy, September-Rabi or winter season are best suited for the successfully growing of Arhar Dal.
During germination, a moist and warm weather thereby temperature ranging from 30 ͦ to 35 ͦC is required for Toor dal and during its active vegetative growth slightly lower temperature ranging from 20 ͦto 25 ͦC is required. Flowering and pod setting requires a temperature of 15 ͦC to 18 ͦC whereas at the time of maturity it requires 35 ͦC to 40 ͦC. The crops get damaged if there is a chance of water-logging, heavy rains and frost. If causes Hailstorm or rain at the time of maturity then the entire crop can be damaged. Arhar consists of deep tap root system due to which it holds good drought tolerant capacity.
Soil Essentials in Arhar Dal Farming: –
Arhar dal or Red Gram supports all types of soil loam to sandy loam soil is best suited for good growth. Moreover, it also supports and grows well in slope lands in the mid-hills. Also, toor dal can be well grown on neutral soils having pH ranging from 6.5 to 7.5. Water-logging in the farm-land should be avoided.
Land Preparation in Red gram Farming: –
The farm-land should be prepared by at least one plowing in the dry season which can be followed by 2 or 3 harrowing and disc plowing. The soil should be plowed in order to have fine tilth as Red gram is well-rooted crop and responds well to proper tilth.
2 to 4 weeks before sowing only organic manure should be applied. To avoid water stagnation, the soil should be well leveled. In order to prevent water-logging contour, broad beds and furrows or a ridge and furrow system can be used. The land should be well tilled, weeds should be properly removed, and crusting should be avoided by mechanical means. Light irrigation plays a good role in the emergence of the seedling.
Sowing and Rate of Seeds in Red gram Farming: –
The rate of seeds used in red gram is 15 kg/ha. The seeds are sown depending upon the varieties used. In case of tall varieties, the seeds are sown in rows keeping a distance of 50 cm whereas the dwarf varieties like HPA-92 should be sown keeping row spacing of 30 to 35 cm keeping seed spacing of 15 to 20 cm. Higher yield is expected if it is sown in last week of May.
Seed Treatment in Red gram Farming: –
The seeds should be treated with Carbendazim or Thiram @ 2g/kg along with the powder formulation of Trichoderma viride @ 4g/kg or Pseudomonas fluorescence @10g/kg before 24 hours of sowing. For sowing treated seeds of a suitable variety having high germination and high real value should be selected. Probably, the seeds selected should be produced during the previous session or else it shouldn’t be more than 2 seasons old. For better germination and good vigorous growth of the seedlings, bolder seeds must be used. In order to have higher yields planting red grams before the onset of monsoon in the month of June is highly recommended. The crop should be sown by giving one pre-monsoon irrigation at least a fortnight earlier than the first shower so that the plants are well established during the rainy season at the time of irrigated condition, but the sowing should be done immediately after the rains are started underrain-fed condition. Under no situation, the sowing should be delayed beyond last week of June.
Plant Spacing in Red gram Farming: –
The varieties which are of long duration which are tall and needs wider area are planted at a row spacing of 90 to 120 cm keeping 30 cm between the plants, especially in the rain-fed condition. The plants grown under irrigated conditions and are early maturing varieties are planted having row spacing of 50 to 75 cm having plant spacing of 15 to 20 cm. 90 to 120 cm of row spacing is recommended in case of April planted Red gram seeds. For black soil 90cm x 20cm whereas for Red soil 60 X 20 cm of spacing is recommended.
Intercropping in Red gram Farming: -Cereals, oilseeds, short duration grain legumes or cotton are intercropped with Red gram traditionally. Red gram is popularly intercropped with cereal crops such as Sorghum, pearl millet, maize, finger millet, etc. Also Red gram-Oilseed intercropping is popular. Other oilseed crops are Groundnut, Soybean and Sesame.
Some short duration pulse crop such as mung bean, cowpea, black gram, chickpea, etc. are intercropped with Red gram.
Manuring in Red gram Farming: – 15 kg of N and 45kg of P2O5 per hectare is used.
Weed Control in Red gram Farming: – The earlier growth of pigeon peas are very slow of 45 to 50 days which makes it less competitive with weeds. 90% of reductions in seed yield is caused if the weeds are not controlled on time. Therefore it becomes necessary to keep the field away from the weeds. Two hands weeding should be done once about 25 to 30 days and another about 45 to 50 days after sowing the crop.
Two weeding and hoeing becomes necessary for the Red gram crop.
Harvesting of a Red gram: –
When the pods get 75% matured the Red gram crop is said to be ready for harvest. Also, the Green pigeon pods are harvested for different purposes. For use as a vegetable, fully developed, bright green seed is preferred, so the pods are harvested soon before they start losing their green color. Hand picking is practiced while harvesting. Arhar leaves remain green when the pods are ready to harvest. Delaying in harvesting due to bad weather may increase the risk of damage to the matured seeds.
Harvesting of Red grams is done manually as well as mechanically.