Soybean / Soybean / Glycine max / Golden bean belong to the Fabaceae family. It is a legume crop and is rich in protein. Soybean oil is one of the most popular edible oil used in India. It is also called a meal maker in India. Other local names of Soybean are Soya Chikkudu, Suntha kadalai, Soya, Soybean, etc.
It is grown in the states of Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Karnataka, Chhattisgarh, Sikkim, Odisha and Uttar Pradesh. The major soybean producing state, is Madhya Pradesh and is called the Soy state. Soybean is used as oil, like milk and food. As a food, it is available as soya chunks or granules and is considered very healthy. It can be added to almost any dish to add protein to it. It is flavorless and takes the flavor of the cooked dish. When cooked or boiled, it tastes like meat and is chewy and sometimes a bit rubbery. Soybean milk is also considered very nutritious. Tofu is a healthy food made from curdling soy milk obtained from soybeans. Some people prefer tofu to paneer.
Popular hybrid varieties of soybean are JS 90-41, SL 295, PK 472, PK 416, VL Soya 21, Ahilya 2 (NRC 12), MACS 124, JS 75-46, JS 335, PK 1024, PK 1402, VL Soya 47, Ahilya 4 (NRC 37), PK 1092, Pratishta (MAUS 61-12), JS 71-05, Pusa 16, JS 80-21, Ahilya 1 (NRC 2), Ahilya 3 (NRC 7), Pant Soyabean 1029, Pusa 9712, TAMS 38, Phule Kalyani, JS 93-05, MACS 450, Indira Soya 9, Hara Soya, Parbhani Sona (MAUS 47), Samrudhi (MAUS 71), Pusa 9814, Pratap Soya 2, Co 1, Co 2, Co (Soy) 3, TAMS 38, etc. Soy is low in fat and has no cholesterol. It contains essential omega-3 fatty acids that are good for the heart. Soya is rich in probiotics and an excellent source of fiber.
It contains minerals such as calcium, magnesium, iron and selenium. It also contains vitamin B12. It is a complete protein and healthy too as it reduces the risk of cancers, heart diseases and osteoporosis. Soybean thrives well in warm and moist climate and is usually grown in June – July. Soybean is normally cultivated in the Kharif and spring seasons. Soybean needs about 15 – 32°C temperature for germination but for rapid growth the crop needs a higher temperature.
Soybean supports many agro-based industries and is used in the manufacture of paints, varnishes, adhesives, etc. It is known to improve the soil quality by nitrogen fixation. The crop requires about 60 – 65 cm annual rainfall drought at flowering or just before flowering results in flower and pod drops, while rains during maturity impair the grain quality of soybean. The best soil type is sandy loam having good organic matter content. Soybean is a cheap source of protein for animals as well and is used as animal feed. Soybean requires well-drained and fertile loamy soils to cultivate well.
Soybean farm in India
Image source – shutterstock.com
Image source – indiamart.com
Image source – dir.indiamart.com
Soya beans are cultivated in the Kharif and spring seasons in June – July and February – March.
Soybeans grow well in warm moist climates with temperatures ranging from 26 – 32°C. too low or too high temperatures hamper the growth of the legume crop. Day temperatures of 25°C are ideal for flowering. The crop is cultivated at an altitude of 1200 – 2000 m above sea level.
Soybean requires 60 – 65 cm annual rainfall. Rainfall during maturity damages the crop. Cloudy weather prolongs the vegetative phase.
Soybean is propagated through seeds. Use only good quality certified seeds. Soybean grown for grain purpose needs about 20 – 30 kg seed/ha but for fodder crop needs about 70 – 75 kg/ha during Kharif season and 100 – 120 kg/ha during spring. The seed rate greatly depends on the cultivar and region.
Treat the seeds with Carbendazim or Thiram @ 2g/kg of seed 24hrs before sowing or with talc formulation of Trichoderma viride @ 4 g/kg seed (or) Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g/kg seed. Bio-control agents are compatible with bio-fertilizers. First, treat the seeds with bio-control agents and then with Rhizobium. Fungicides and bio-control agents are incompatible. If using bio-fertilizers, treat the seeds a day before sowing with 600 g/ha of Rhizobial culture.
Soybean is grown on a variety of soils ranging from light to black cotton soils in different parts of India. Well-drained fertile loams soils are ideal for its cultivation. Soil should be loose and well aerated. Highly compacted soils are harmful to root nodule development. The crop is sensitive to both saline and acidic conditions and can be grown within pH range of 6.0 – 7.5. Water-logging is also harmful to the crop.
Soybean is cultivated with a spacing of 45 – 60 cm with a driller or behind the plow. Plant-plant distance is 4 – 5 cm with a depth of 3 – 4 cm at the most.
The land to be cultivated should not have had soybean growing in the previous season. The field is made into ridges and furrows 1 feet wide or beds and channels of 4 x 6 feet. Soil preparation for soybean consists of one deep plow with mold board plow followed by two harrowing and planking. To protect the crop from soil-borne insects especially termites, 25 kg endosulfan dust 4% should be mixed into the soil just before the last harrowing.
In general, the preparation of the land for soybean is more or less same as it is for maize. It requires a good seed bed with a reasonable fine texture and not too many clods. Land should be well leveled and be free from crop stubble. One deep plow with mold board followed by two harrows or two plows. There should be optimum moisture in the field at the time of sowing.
Use 5 tons of well-decomposed FYM along with a basal application of 360 kg super-phosphate, 40 kg urea, and 50 kg muriate of potash per acre. Also, 25 Kg Zinc sulfate and 10 Kg Borax should be applied.
In soybean farming, crop rotation with mandua, sesamum, and maize is found useful. In inter-cultivation, plant row spacing of maize is 100 cm and plant-plant distance is 10 cm. 3 rows of soybean are grown between the maize rows. In the north, it grows well with cotton and arhar and in the south, it grows well with cotton, sorghum, arhar, sugarcane, and groundnut.
Soybean is a rainfed crop. In case of Kharif, crop irrigation is not needed and it is grown rainfed. However, during summer the crop can be grown only under assured irrigation and it needs about 5 – 6 irrigations. The crop should be irrigated at sprouting stage and flowering pod initiation and bean filling stages. In case of moisture stress, 1 – 2 irrigation at flowering and pod filling stages is beneficial. The last irrigation should be scheduled a month before harvest. The total water requirement of the crop is 45 cm. Check basin or border strip method is most popularly used for irrigating soybean.
Step one in any weed management is using good quality certified seeds that are disease and pest resistant.
Step two is ensuring the land is free of weeds, and inter-cultural operations are carried out when necessary.
Steps three is to ensure you treat the seeds as mentioned above before sowing to further reduce the onset of weeds, diseases, and pests.
Alachlor may be applied to the irrigated crop at 4 liters/ha or Pendimethalin 3.3 liter ai/ha after sowing followed by one hand weeding on 30 days after sowing.
If herbicide spray is not given two hands weeding on 20 and 35 days after sowing may be given
Imazythypur @ boqaitha may be applied as post-emergence on 20 DAS with one hand weeding on 30 days after sowing.
Bihar Hairy Caterpillar can be controlled by collecting and destroying infested plant parts, egg masses, and young larvae. Install light traps alternately. You can also apply chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 1.5 lit/ha or trizophos 40 EC @ 0.8 Lit/ha or quinalphos 25 EC @ 1.5 lit/ha.
Thrips and soybean aphids can be treated by dusting cow dung ash or spraying 0.05% quinalphos 25 EC
Alternaria leaf spot can be treated by destroying crop residues from fields or treating the seeds with thiram or carbendazim
Soybean mosaic can be treated by burning the infected plants or Methyl demeton 800 ml/ha
Frog eye leaf spot can be treated with Thiram and carbendazim (2:1) 3 g/kg seeds
Yellow mosaic can be treated by removing the infected plants or spraying Monocrotophos 500 ml
For further issues, please contact your local horticulturist
When soybean plants mature they start dropping their leaves. The maturity period ranges from 90 to 140 days depending on the varieties. When the plants reach maturity, the leaves turn yellow and drop and soybean pods dry out quickly. There is a rapid loss of moisture from the seed. At harvest, the moisture content of the seed should be 15%. Harvesting can be done by hand, breaking the stalks on the ground level or with a sickle. Threshing can be done either with the mechanical soybean thresher or some conventional method used in other legumes. Threshing should be done carefully and any kind of severe beating or trampling may damage the seed coat and thus reduce the seed quality and viability. Wheat thresher can also thresh soybean after a little modification. This would involve a change of sieve, reduction of the cylinder speed and increase in fan speed. A moisture content of 13 to 14% is ideal for threshing with Thresher.
Yield depends on the cultivar, region and climatic conditions. On an average, the yield is about 18 – 35 quintals/ha.
BENEFITS OF SOYBEANS
Soybean is used as soybean oil, as soybean milk and as the food it used as soybeans or soybean chunks/granules.
It is rich in protein and is considered a complete protein
Soybean milk is considered very nutritious and healthy.
Tofu is a healthy food made from curdling soy milk obtained from soybeans. Some people prefer tofu to paneer.
Soy is low in fat and has no cholesterol. It contains essential omega-3 fatty acids that are good for the heart.
Soya is rich in probiotics and an excellent source of fiber.
It contains minerals such as calcium, magnesium, iron and selenium. It also contains vitamin B12.
It reduces the risk of cancers, heart diseases, and osteoporosis.
Soybean supports many agro-based industries and is used in the manufacture of paints, varnishes, adhesives, etc.
It is known to improve the soil quality by nitrogen fixation.
Nutritional value of soybean per 100 gm
As per Wikipedia
% Daily Value*
Total Fat 20 g 30%
Saturated fat 2.9 g 14%
Polyunsaturated fat 11 g
Monounsaturated fat 4.4 g
Cholesterol 0 mg 0%
Sodium 2 mg 0%
Potassium 1,797 mg 51%
Total Carbohydrate 30 g 10%
Dietary fiber 9 g 36%
Sugar 7 g
Protein 36 g 72%
Vitamin A 0% Vitamin C 10%
Calcium 27% Iron 87%
Vitamin D 0% Vitamin B-6 20%
Vitamin B-12 0% Magnesium 70%