Introduction: -Wheat is known to be the one of the main cereal Rabi season (winter) crop grown in India. Wheat contains mostly medium protein, soft or medium hard and white bread wheat. The leading producer of wheat in India are Haryana, Punjab. In recent years, Madhya Pradesh is the leading producer of Wheat in India. After Russia, the USA and China, India secures the largest position in producing Wheat across the world. India accounts and contributes for 8.7% of the world total production of Wheat.
Wheat constitutes of proteins, vitamins and carbohydrates and proves itself to be a part of the balanced food. Also, it is a very good source of fiber. Wheat contains unrefined state of manganese and magnesium.
Varieties: -Some of the commercial varieties available in India includes
Northern Hills Zone (NHZ): HS-240, HS-360, VL-804, VL-832 requires medium fertility and are sown timely. These varieties come under Rain fed or Irrigated crop.
HS-277 and VL-829 are early sown, rainfed and have medium fertility.
HS-207, HS-295, HS-375 (Himgiri), HS-420 (Shivalik) has medium fertility, Rain-fed crop and are sown late.
HPW42, HS375 (Himgiri) varieties are cultivated at very high altitude.
North Western Plains Zone (NWPZ): HD2687, PDW-233(d), WH-147, WH-542, UP- 2338, PBW-343, WH-896(d), PBW-502, Shrestha (HD 2687), Aditya (HD 2781) belongs to an irrigated type which requires high fertility and is sown timely.
Pbw-373, PBW-435, Raj-3765, UP-2425 consists of medium fertility belonging to irrigated type and are late sown.
North Eastern Plain Zone (NEPZ): HD-2824, HD-2733, PBW-443, PBW-502, NW-1012, K-9107, HUW-468, HP-1731 are all high fertilized, well-irrigated variety and are timely sown.
HUW-234, HW-2045, Raj-3765, DBW-14, HD-2643, NW-1014, NW-2036, HP-1744 are all late sown crop belonging to irrigated and are medium fertilized.
K8027, HDR77, K8962 belongs to rain-fed variety having low fertility and are sown late.
HD-2888 is sown timely and categorized as rain-fed.
Central Zone (CZ): HI-8381 (d), HI-8498 (d), GW-273, DL-803-3, GW-190, Lok-1, Raj-1555 are highly fertilized irrigated variety and are timely sown.
Urja (HD-2864), NI-5439, DL-788-2, MP-4010, GW-173, GW-322, are medium fertilized and irrigated crop variety that are sown late.
Sujata, C-306, HI-1500, HD-4672 (d), HW-2004, JWS-17 are sown timely having low fertility belongs to rain-fed type.
Peninsular Zone (PZ): MACS-2846 (d), DWR-2001(di), DWR-195, HD-2189, DDK-1009 (di), DWR-1006 (d), Raj-4037 are sown timely, high fertilized and are irrigated type.
Pusa Tripti (HD-2833), HUW-510, HD-2501, HI-1977, NIAW-34 are sown late fertilized medium and irrigated variety.
HD-2380, A9-30-1, K-9644, NIAW-15 (d) are sown timely having low fertility and belongs to Rain-fed variety.
Southern Hills Zone (SHZ): NP-200 (di), HW-741, HW-2044, HW-1085 are having low fertility; Rain fed crop which is sown timely. NP-200 (di), HW-1085, HUW-318, HW-741, HW-517 are well irrigated, high fertilized and sown timely.
National Capital Region Delhi (NCR): HD-4713 (I) (d), HD-2851 (Pusa Visesh) are sown timely and well irrigated.
Pusa Gold (WR-544) is late sown and undergoes irrigation.
Climate Requirement for Wheat farming: –
The adaptability of the wheat crop is wide. Tropical, sub-tropical zones including temperate zone and the cold tracts of the far North, beyond 60 ͦ North altitudes are well suited for Wheat farming. Wheat crop has the capacity to tolerate severe cold and snow and resume growth with the setting in of warm weather in the spring season. The cultivation of wheat is carried out with the moist and cool weather. Dry weather is required and becomes responsible for the grain to ripen properly.
For the seed germination of wheat crop ranges within 20 ͦC to 25 ͦC. Also, the temperature between 3.5 ͦC to 35 ͦC are favorable for the germination of wheat seeds.
Warm and Damp climatic areas are not favorable for wheat cultivation. When heading and the flowering stage is reached, drought and excessively low or high temperature may prove to be harmful to wheat.
Soil Essentials in Wheat Farming: –
A wide range of soil complements Wheat Farming. But still clay, loamy soil having moderate water capacity are most favorable for Wheat Cultivation. The soil should be neutrally reacted. The wheat crop is sensitive to water-logging needs heavy soils having good drainage. Lighter soils can also support wheat cultivation, but it should be applied with proper irrigation and the essential nutrients.
Field Preparation in Wheat Farming: –
The farmland requires 1 deep plowing along with 2 or 3 harrowing done with disc or tines and 2 or 3 planking should be given in order to prepare a well-pulverized seedbed. Aldrin at the rate of 5% dust should be mixed in the soil at 25 kg/ha at the last plowing time in order to protect the Wheat seedling from gujhia weevil and white ants. In order to improve Wheat seed germination, 35 to 40 kg of Urea/ha should be used.
Soil Treatment in Wheat Farming: –
Application of Azatobacter at the rate of 2.5 kg, Phosphetica culture at the rate of 2.5 kg mixed up with 100 to 125 kg of Farm Yard Manure are done at the time of the last plowing.
The rate of Seed and Treatment in Wheat Farming: –
The estimated rate of Wheat seed in case of the normal condition is said to be 100 kg/ha. Similarly, for coarse sized grain it goes up to 120 kg/ha and the seeds that are sown late the rate reaches 125 kg/ha.
For better yield and germination, the seeds should be treated with the application of 5 kg Carbendazim or 2.5 kg of Thiram or 5 gram of Trichoderma that is sprayed at 1 kg of seed.
Sowing of Seeds in Wheat Farming: –
November to December is the best time suited for the sowing of seeds in Wheat farming. Seeds should be soaked in water throughout the night before the sowing so that the loss caused due to late sowing should be reduced keeping closer spacing thereby using higher seed rate. Shallow sowing at the rate of 2 cm to 3 cm is done following thin covering of Farm Yard Manure soon after sowing.
The row to row spacing should be done 23 cm X 24 cm whereas the late-sown Wheat is sown at 15 cm to 18 cm apart.
Irrigation in Wheat Farming: –
The 1st irrigation should be practiced at 3 to 4 weeks after sowing. 2nd should be performed at 40 to 45 days after sowing. Similarly, the 3rd one is done at 60 to 65 days and the 4th is done at 80 to 85 day for sowing. 5th irrigation of Wheat is done at 100 to 105 day of after sowing whereas the 6th is done at 105 to 120 days after sowing.
Control of Weeds in Wheat Farming: –
⦁ Grassy Weeds: In order to control its application of Fenoxaprop-ethyl at the rate of 80 to 120 grams a.i. /ha in 250 to 300 liters of water/ha is sprayed. Also, Clodinafop at the rate of 400 grams/ha (60 grams a.i. /ha) in 250 to 300 liter of water/ha is used.
⦁ Broadleaf Weeds: Metsulfuron methyl at the rate of 4 grams a.i. /ha along with 250 to 300 liter of water/ha is used in order to control these weeds. 2, 4-0 at the rate of 500 grams a.i. /ha mixed up with 250 to 300 liter of water/ha.
⦁ Both Broadleaf and Grassy Weeds: Metribuzin at the rate of 175 grams a.i. /ha mixed up with 500 liters of water/ha are used to control both the weeds. Also Sulfosulfuran at the rate of 25.0 grams a.i. /ha along with 250 to 300 liter of water/ha is also used for this purpose.
The mixture of isoproturon and 2, 4-0 can also be applied for the control of mixed weed population in resistance free area. Also, the solution of Sulfosulfuran at the rate of 25 grams/ ha and metsulfuron-methyl at 4 grams/ha in 250 to 300 liter of water/ha may be applied.
Fertilizers used in Wheat Farming: –
The fertilizers to be used for Hill Regions – For unirrigated area, we use 40 to 80 kg of Nitrogen, 30 kg Phosphorous and 20 kg of Potash per hectare. If evaluated per Nali it comes to 0.8 to 1.2 kg of Nitrogen, 0.6 kg of Phosphorous and 0.4 kg of Potash.
For irrigated area 150 kg of Nitrogen, 60 kg of Phosphorous and 40 kg of Potash per hectare is used. In per Nali, the quantity comes to 2.0 to 2.4 kg of Nitrogen, 1.2 kg of Phosphorous and 0.8 kg of Potash is used and applied.
Plain Regions: The seeds that are timely sown uses 150 kg of Nitrogen, 60 kg of Phosphorous and 40 kg of Potash.
The crops that are sown late uses 80 kg of Nitrogen, 40 kg of Phosphorous and 30 kg of Potash.
Pests and Diseases in Wheat Farming: –
Yellow and stem rust, powdery mildew, three rusts namely leaf, foliar, blights, Karnal bunt and loose smut are the major diseases found in Wheat Cultivation in India. To know more about regional diseases and the ways to prevent it the local area horticulture/agriculture department should be contacted.
Harvesting of Wheat: –
As soon as the straw becomes dry, brittle, and the grains hardens then the Wheat crop is ready for harvesting. The maturity of the Wheat crop depends from zone to zone. Rainfed crops get matured much earlier when compared to Irrigated crops. Rain-fed crops are expected to have lower yields. The grains are thoroughly dried in order to remove all its moisture content before storage is done. The godowns, storage pits, and bins are to be fumigated and kept moisture free in order to keep all the pests away.
The total yield depends upon the variety and cultivation method. The yield can be enhanced more by adding Nitrogen and Gypsum to the field, sowing seeds on time and growing vegetable pea.